Astronomical time machines

Astronomical time machines

The galactic center in the ray light – recorded with the NASA Space Telescope Chandra. Image: NASA / Chandra

The view in the room through the prism of the time reveals the historical dimension of the ALLS

For insiders and informed it is an old hat, for professional astronomers simply everyday life, but others, however, seems "that" fact completely new or unknown, the creationists or. Intelligent design pearl still as a smooth lug brand: Every look into space is also a look into the past due to the finite propagation speed of light at the same time. All has a story that at least 13.7 billion started starting. And their observers are advancing to historians of the cosmos, which at least can study small parts of a huge puzzle. From 2013, many new puzzle stones will be added when the Hubble successor, the "James Webb Telescope" (JWST), takes his work.

Even though the photons riding on light waves – which are at the same time the light wave – even no time passes, but each photon simultaneously documents the temporary character of the universe, which in turn is not a static, but a very historically grown structure. Every photon that meets after its long-term lonely Odyssee by the "emptiness", better Matterarme’s universe to the earth, is an information packed by information from past days.

Snapshot of a "World Island"

Even the light of our home star needs for eight and a half minutes to the 150 million kilometers distance to the earth at a speed of just under 300.000 kilometers in the second to be brought over.

The galactic center in the ray light – recorded with the NASA Space Telescope Chandra. Image: NASA / Chandra

Let’s take a look at the center of our dairy effort system, we experience its past time as it is about 30.000 years ago. And we admire the beauty of the 2.25 million light-years distant Andromedanebels, present us the image of a Kosmo-archaic spiral galaxy, in which many of the stars embedded there have been percepted by their lives again.

It is a snapshot of a distant "global island", which was made at a time when the Homo Rudolfsis, an vertices of Homo Sapiens, on the earth just experienced his blood season. The "Timers" of the Postmoderne – from the earthbound to the orbit driving observatories – drove us almost relentless as the pointer of a clock in mind that our astronomical past is not behind, but in front of us. What we capture ad oculos is nothing but past presence of the universe. Practical with every look through the eyepiece we dive deep and directly into the past of the cosmos and meet stars, galaxies and quasars such as this once looked at the time when the light has just "failed".

Supernova. Image: ESO

Nevertheless, the space as a whole in its temporal development is not accessible – the view Sub Specie Aesteratis is denied us. The astronomers at best see a retarded image of the cosmos. Neither today’s condition nor the development of individual objects are observable, but only a mixture of state and development data. This results in another specific difficulty of cosmology. Room, time and object questions are intertwined: we can not look in coarse distances without simultaneously looking back in the past. Only objects with their own history and development can be observed. In other words, the "Telescopic Telescope" looks at us only a look into the past of the cosmos, whereby the observer "bulletin" of the cosmos simply is his present and future. What happens away from the Nusshale Earth in the Cosmic Ocean in the universe "opposite" or only in the distant future, depending on the world’s model, will be available for all time beyond our cognitive horizon for all times. To what extent this is also true dark energy and dark matter, their true nature so far as good as nothing is known, the time will show.

Only four percent of the universe are the latest assessment of matter, of which we can only capture a fraction with our telescopes. Image: NASA / WMAP Science Team

Invisible big bang with light cho

Microwave background radiation flooding today the universe isotrop has its origins in the early cosmos. Your place of origin and birthplace represents research in front of a unusable border. Because the further you will take back to the past, the opaque becomes the universe. There is a border, from beyond that the light can no longer get to us.

Immediately after the big bang, only free electrons and protons could exist, which collided with the expansion of the cosmos and the decrease in temperatures and became hydrogen atoms. Only when the temperature had fallen to 4000 Kelvin, electrons and protons combined into neutral hydrogen. As a result, the gas free charge carrier was deprived, which previously sprinkled the radiation so much that the gas became opaque.

Astronomical time machines

Cosmic Timetable (gross . Image: NASA AND A. Feild (STSCI)

After the formation of the atoms, the gas was transparent, and the radiation could spread almost freely. Only now did the photons moved unhindered – the space became transparent. Even today, the cosmos is flooded by these light particles or electromagnetic waves. Since the universe for electromagnetic radiation of any kind, but especially for light, was opaque, before it is about 380.000 years after the big bang on around 4.000 Kelvin cooled, we can not see today, what has happened long ago beyond this horizont. Our "gaze" ends where he protrudes into a fruit epoch in which the temperature of the cosmic matter high and the universe was a crude, mainly of protons, electrons and photons existing mass. The view view in the early space is blocked by the cosmic photoshare – as if one was considered the blue sky through the bottom of water vapor clouds.

Fruhzeit of the MaterieKosmos – Universe Incognitum

Between the photon barrier given by the background radiation, the "cosmic fog wall" and our current horizon, the power ability and range of space telescopes (Z. B. Hubble) and earthbound telescopes (such as the European sadswarten ESO in Chile), is a universe universe incognitum currently not yet developed.

The space astronomy in the next century will try to pre-feed into this room time area and to search for your target objects: Z. B. Protogalactic clouds and galaxies located in the genesis. While it is correct that the view of the telescopes facing the past ends at the cosmic photosphare and prevented direct insight into the cosmos’s early history. But still we have information (primordial nucleosynthesis, spectrum of background radiation) of the physical state of the very early cosmos, beyond the veil of the cosmic photosphare.

Astronomical time machines

Galaxy cluster Abell 2218 – Some galaxies on this hubble picture are 13 billion years old. Image: ESA, NASA, J.-P. Beib (Caltech / Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees) and R. Ellis (Caltech)

The microwave background radiation flooding throughout the cosmos consists of photons spranging ebendies cosmic photosphare. The frequently observed frequency of light chemical elements hydrogen, deuterium and helium corresponds to the physical model of a hot and fast expansive space (about 180 seconds after the beginning). Trimmed on these observation data – won with earthly and orbit floating telescopes – today we can use physical theories to make an abstract image of very early cosmos. Although there can never be a "image of the big bang" analogue to a photo or a view of the landscape. But still our picture will refine from the cosmos in the future.

Astronomical time machines

Galaxies and stars – where the eye or or. Telescopic also looks. Image: ESA

High energy New Year’s Eve firework

In the history of astronomy and cosmology, the mint of new forms of art and hypotheses and the discovery of new phanomena – often determine by means of new instruments or improved telescopes -. The progress of Extragalactic Astronomy in the last five decades is in particular chritten by telescopes and detectors aboard satellites in space. One of those time machines, with astronomers already successfully looked into the past, is the legendary, since 1990 since 1990 in the Orbit on the NASA Space Observatory Hubble, which is superlativally rarely embarrassed.

Excellent is the success story of Hubble Deep Fields, which initiated the Space Telescope Science Institute (STSCI) in 1993, when one was already considered with a hitherto, but unprecedented idea has been presented in practice. Why should not you fix the space telescope for several hours on a narrow point in space and wait, which requires the sensitive Hubble cameras to days? Thought – done.

Astronomical time machines

On this "Hubble Ultra Deep Field" recording are estimated 10.000 galaxies to see, of which in our view of the oldest about 13 billion, which are from cosmic chronological point of view youngest 400 to 800 million years young. Image: NASA, ESA AND R. Thompson (Univ. Arizona)

Instead of carrying out a broad observation, the astronomers used the precious observation time to watch a seemingly dark spot on the north sky for many hours. The result spoke for himself and revolutionized the astronomy. For the first time, there was a variety of galaxies in empty regions of the universe, which were created at a time when the universe had only about one tenth of its current age. Since then, these are so-called Deep-field-Recordings en vogue. In this way, galaxies can be visible, whose light was about 12 billion years. Always efficient also operate the RONGENTELescope. Considered with rontgenaugen – as this successfully practiced the ESA telescope XMM-Newton has been successful for quite some time – the starry sky resembles a dynamic and high-energy New Year’s Eve firework.

Kosmo Atlas shows image of the beginning

Go directly to the search for the fingerprint of the big bang, on the other hand, the NASA satellite COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer) has occurred at the beginning of the 1990s. He encourages the afterglow of the hot initial: In order to examine the inhomogeneities of the microwave background radiation already proven by COBE and uncovering the so far only theoretical backrest on the quantum nature of the big bang and the origin of the galaxies, WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) has been taking place since the center 2002 The fluctuations in the Urknallecho even more closely at the magnifying glass. Within FUF various frequency bands ranging from 22 to 90 GHz, the NASA microwave telescope lists certain vibration patterns in the microwave background radiation, which has "acoustic tips".

Astronomical time machines

WMAP recording of microwave background radiation. Image: NASA / WMAP Science Team

Just these minimal fluctuations and temperature differences MAB WMAP with unprecedented accuracy and could calculate a warm pattern from it. The temperature varies only in the range of millionths, but these tiny differences are the key to everything. From this, the researchers can either derive what was once again in the cosmic "reason soup" after the big bang, from the stars and galaxies.

At the beginning of 2003, NASA published the first official WMAP recording on which the sharpest picture of the fireball stadium of our universe has been seen so far. Meanwhile, the NASA research probe WMAP made a complete map of microwave background radiation. Thanks to this Kosmo Atlas, astronomers were able to reconstruct the best image of the universe so far and at the same time visualize how it once looked 400,000 years after the big bang, as stars and galaxies have not yet existed.

Lying on the reverberation of the big bang

Meanwhile, the next generation of highly sensitive space authorities is in the starting pages: during the "Planck" satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA) is to start a lousy attack on the reverber of the big bang at the end of 2008, currently NASA and ESA engineers and Canadian scientists are currently working on The "James Webb Space Telescope" (JWST). Only half as coarse as hubble and ten tons more lighter, but far attributed to his process in terms of performance, the new JWST Space telescope of the NASA and ESA will immerse yourself in the past in 2013 in the past of the universe.

The NASA / ESA Hubble telescope … still in use. Image: NASA

The telescopic mirror of JWST, which operates in the infrared light and thus can look deeper into space, is more than twice as coarse as that of Hubble. The new super eye can thus be much deeper into space than hubble, far deeper than any other grounded telescope, not least because, unlike hubble, it is not in the Erdorbit, but in an orbit around the Lagrange point L2 of the Earth Sun Systems is positioned, so about 1.5 million kilometers away from the earth, where external storm actuators are rar.

Red displacement without end

Since the YWST has the light through its coarse mirror strong bundled and especially for the infrared light, there can be cosmic objects that only one hundredth can be as bright as the phanomena, the hubble has so far examined.

James Webb Space Telescope should take off in 2013 …Image: ESA

That these apparatures are focused on evaluating the captured radiation primarily in a wide range of infrared light has astronomically handproof bases: infrared radiation is of oscillatory value for astronomers, as many cosmic sky corpers are merely emitting in the infrared area of light. Since warm radiation can easily penetrate dark gas and interstellar dust clouds, not only baby stars, young stars, planetary systems, extrasolar planets, dust mist or black punch with a male will be in this way "visible", but also distant galaxies whose cosmo-archaic light has shifted into the infrared as a result of the expansion of the universe. And the red shift does not end, because the universe expands faster faster with gradually rising speed – to all eternity or not. Nobody knows that exactly.

Astronomical time machines

More about the big bang, but above all more about those theories that want to offer the traily astrophysical models à la "Big Bang" or "Big Crunch" Paroli, the Telepolis Special cosmology presented, which had to be reprinted due to its success.

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